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University of Wisconsin–Madison

Editorial Style Guide Index

a while, awhile
generally a preposition (typically for, after, or in) precedes a while, but awhile stands alone.
a.m.; p.m.
lowercase with periods (also see times)
abbreviations
In general, avoid abbreviations in running text. The ampersand (&) is not a substitute for and. Use abbreviations and the ampersand only when part of official names. If the name of the abbreviation may be unknown to some readers, use the full name on first reference. See individual entries for usage for specific abbreviations.
academic degrees
see degrees
academic departments
see departments
academic titles
Capitalize and spell out formal titles such as professor, dean, president, chancellor, professor emeritus, and chair when they precede a name: Chancellor John Doe, Professor Jane Doe, Dean John Smith; but John Doe, chancellor; John Smith, dean; or Jane Doe, professor. Lowercase modifiers: music professor Jane Doe, department chair Jane Doe, or Jane Doe, professor of music. Capitalize formal titles of named professorships on all references: Jane Doe has been named the Bascom Professor of Art; Jane Doe, Bascom Professor of Art, received the award; Jane Doe, Bascom Professor Emeritus of Art, gave the lecture. See also titles of people.
acronyms and initialisms
Although we refer to campus units by acronyms in speech and internal publications (such as DoIT for the Division of Information Technology), acronyms should not be used exclusively except for those commonly used both inside and outside the university community (NASA, FBI). If an acronym must be used, to eliminate confusion when using lesser-known acronyms, spell out the full name on the first mention, with the acronym in parentheses following. Acronyms are made plural by adding an s if there are no periods in the acronym (IOUs) and adding ’s if there are periods in the acronym (Ph.D.'s). See the Chicago Manual for more on the appropriate use of acronyms.
AD
stands for anno Domini, Latin for in the year of the Lord; do not use periods; AD precedes the year; See also CMS 9.35.
addresses
In running text, use figures for numbered addresses (123 Main Street) and spell out the words street, avenue, place, boulevard, etc. (except for news communication, in which such words are abbreviated when using numbered addresses). Include campus street addresses only for publicizing an off-campus event and for publications intended for off-campus audiences. Separate street address, phone, web address, etc., with a semicolon, one space between state abbreviation and zip code: Department of Economics, 7470 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706; 608-263-2989; fax 608-262-0000; economics@mail.admin.wisc.edu; www.wisc.edu/economics/. Refer to AP styles for use of addresses in news releases or copy for Inside UW–Madison. Use the complete mailing address when the information is intended for an off-campus audience. Include area codes for telephone and fax numbers when the audience is off campus.
admissions; admissions office; Office of Admissions and Recruitment
lowercase unless referring to formal office name
advisor, adviser
Use advisor for admissions, academic advising, and housing materials. Use adviser for all other uses. It is most important to be consistent within a single publication or family of publications.
affiliate group
Groups that were created by the Wisconsin Alumni Association and remain affiliated with the Wisconsin Foundation and Alumni Association.
African American (n. and adj.)
no hyphen for noun or adjective usages, but hyphenate nouns and adjectives (AP style) for newswriting: African-American
Agricultural Hall
not Agriculture Hall
air force
see CMS 8.111
Al-Qaeda
not Al-Qaida
all of a sudden
not all of the sudden
All Ways Forward
the name of the current comprehensive campaign
all-American
always hyphenated; all is always lowercase unless it refers to the Associated Press–chosen All-American football or basketball team.
alum
Use this term only in informal contexts; See also alumnus, alumna, alumni, alumnae.
alumni association
lowercase with generic references to the Wisconsin Alumni Association and other alumni associations
alumni center
see Martin and Florence Below Alumni Center, the
alumni chapters/clubs
Never use club, even though some Wisconsin Alumni Association alumni chapters refer to themselves that way; terms such as group or alumni community are acceptable to provide variety. Use alumni chapter as a generic reference, and use, e.g., Seattle alumni chapter or Seattle chapter as a quasi-generic reference. For specific references, use the WAA reference first (written out or abbreviated as WAA), then a colon, then the capitalized word Chapter, as in Wisconsin Alumni Association: Fox Valley Chapter; WAA: Fox Valley Chapter; Wisconsin Alumni Association: Big Apple Badgers Chapter; WAA: Motor City Badgers Chapter.
alumni directory
lowercase when referring to the online directory
Alumni For Wisconsin (A4W)
capital F on For
alumni learning
lowercase for this segment of WAA operations
Alumni Park
the new park and green space between One Alumni Place and the Memorial Union Terrace; to be completed in 2017
alumni travel
lowercase for generic references to this segment of WAA operations, but use WAA Travel when referring to the department
alumnihood
one word, no hyphen
alumnus, alumna, alumni, alumnae
Use alumnus (alumni in the plural) when referring to a man who has attended a school. Use alumna (alumnae in the plural) for similar references to a woman. Use alumni when referring to groups that include both men and women. In most informal uses, alum is an acceptable alternative. These terms can also be used for people who attended the university, but did not graduate.
American Indian
uppercase both words; no hyphen when used as a noun or adjective; where possible, use the name of the tribe; see also CMS 8.37
American Indian Advisory Council (AIAC)
American Players Theatre (APT)
not Theater
ampersand
the ampersand (&) is not a substitute for and; use it only when an entity includes it as part of its official name
Annual Campaign
refer to this as the University of Wisconsin–Madison Annual Campaign, with initial caps, on first reference; UW–Madison Annual Campaign is also acceptable. Use Annual Campaign (uppercase) on second reference. A generic reference with the year would be 2016 Annual Campaign (uppercase).
appositives
see names in appositive form
Arboretum, the
uppercase when referring to the UW Arboretum; lowercase with generic references to arboretums
army
see CMS 8.111
artist-in-residence, artists-in-residence
hyphenate
Asian American (n. and adj.)
no hyphen for noun or adjective usages, but hyphenate nouns and adjectives (AP style) for newswriting: Asian-American
associate degree
not associate’s degree
athletic scores
see scores
athletic teams
Use UW instead of UW–Madison on second reference when referring to athletic teams.
athletics department
In formal references, use UW Department of Athletics or Department of Athletics; in informal references or on second reference, use athletics department (with an s on athletics); as a generic description of the sports program in general, UW athletics is acceptable.
awards, prizes
uppercase Award or Prize when referring to a specific award (Sparkplug Award), but lowercase when generic (the award); see also CMS 8.82
Axe
with a final e in reference to the Badgers’ football rivalry with Minnesota for Paul Bunyan’s Axe
Babcock ice cream
The brand name is Babcock Hall ice cream because it’s made by the Babcock Hall Dairy Plant, but an acceptable nickname is Babcock ice cream.
Badger Herald, the
although The is in its official name, use lowercase roman type for “the”; see CMS 8.168
BADGER HUDDLE®
Use the registered mark; write the phrase in all caps; including THE is acceptable but not necessary. Sometimes context calls for usage such as the Purdue BADGER HUDDLE®, in which case the THE would not be capitalized. Never say just HUDDLES, but BADGER HUDDLE® tailgates is acceptable. Use the initial-capped (but not all-capped) Huddle on subsequent references to a BADGER HUDDLE®. Periods and commas go after the ®. The word huddle is lowercase when referring to a literal football huddle or a gathering that’s figuratively called a huddle.
Badger Insider magazine (BI)
WAA’s magazine for its members; “magazine” is lowercase roman
Badger of the Year (BOY) Award
Wisconsin Alumni Association award that recognizes alumni who are leaders in their professions or in their communities.
Badger Student Send-Off Celebrations
see also send-off, send off
Badger yearbook
do not use The or Yearbook as part of the title
Badgers
the official team name of UW–Madison men’s and women’s athletics teams; acceptable as a substitute for the UW for teams and athletes on second reference; synonymous with graduates, fans, and friends of the university
Badgerwear
for references to clothing products that Badgers wear
Baldwin, Tammy
the graduation year for this U.S. senator from Wisconsin is JD’89
band
see UW Marching Band, UW Varsity Band
Bascom Hill Society Showcase Series
lowercase lecture and luncheon if they follow the proper name of the series
Bascom Hill Society, the (BHS)
for major donors to the UW; use society on second reference; do not capitalize the when calling it the Bascom Hill Society
BC
means before Christ; do not use periods; BC follows the year; see also CMS 9.35
Below Alumni Center
see Martin and Florence Below Alumni Center, the
biannual, biennial, semiannual
biannual means twice a year and is a synonym for semiannual; biennial means every two years
Big Red
capitalize
Big Ten, not Big 10
not Big 10; UW–Madison is one of 14 institutions in the Big Ten Conference; the others are Indiana University, Michigan State University, Northwestern University, Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, Purdue University, University of Illinois, University of Iowa, University of Michigan, University of Minnesota, University of Nebraska, University of Maryland, and Rutgers University
bimonthly, biweekly, semimonthly, semiweekly
bimonthly means every other month; biweekly means every other week; semimonthly means twice a month; semiweekly means twice a week
birth/former names
see names and degrees
board of directors, board of regents, board of visitors
lowercase when generic, but uppercase when the term is included as part of the formal name of a group; see also regent, regents and CMS 8.67
Bonner, Paula
her degree year is MS’78; her titles are president and chief alumni officer of the Wisconsin Alumni Association
boys, men, girls, women
people who are of high school age or younger are boys and girls; people who are of college age or older are men and women
Building Badger Leaders
refer to this WAA program without adding conference as a descriptor when possible, but lowercase conference when it’s included
buildings
capitalize official names of campus facilities; on second reference, lowercase if a proper name is not used: the Mosse Humanities Building, the building, construction on Vilas; the word building may be used to prevent confusion with the academic department of the same name, but do not capitalize building in these cases: the Law School, the Law School building; in most cases, building names can stand alone: Grainger Hall, Nancy Nicholas Hall
bulleted information
regardless of the style chosen for a document — complete sentences or not, end punctuation or not, an initial cap on the first word of each bulleted item or not, and the like — remain consistent throughout that particular document. If a second sentence is added to an item — which drives end punctuation on the first sentence — then all items in the bulleted list should have end punctuation.
bylines
Use graduation year(s) if the writer is a graduate; use birth/former name(s) unless the writer does not wish to include it/them. If a writer has more than one byline within a section of a publication, use the full name and graduation year(s) (if applicable) on the first reference and initials with no graduation year(s) on subsequent references. This does not apply to photo credits.
Camp Randall Stadium
home for Wisconsin’s football team
campus's
not campus'
campuswide
also citywide, countywide, nationwide, statewide, systemwide, worldwide, but university-wide
Capital Times, the
although The is in its official name, use lowercase roman type for “the”; see CMS 8.168
capital, capitol
a capital is a city that is the seat of government or known for its eminence in a particular field (fashion capital); a capitol is a building where a legislature meets; lowercase capitol when referring generically to Wisconsin’s state capitol building, but the building in Washington, DC, is the Capitol
capitalization
avoid unnecessary capital letters: use them only when one of the principles listed in this guide, the dictionary, or the Chicago Manual of Style justifies their usage In particular, the following should be capitalized: – Proper nouns for people, places, or things: Allison, Atlanta, the Alamo – Proper names: when they are an official part of the full name of a person, place, or thing: Democratic Party, Lake Mendota, Park Street, Charles River, West Virginia, College of Letters & Science, University of Wisconsin–Madison. Lowercase when these stand alone in subsequent or generic references: the party, the lake, the street, the river, the state, the college, the university. Per CMS 8.52 and 8.55, uppercase these words in plural usages: the Democratic and Republican Parties, Langdon and State Streets.
captions
In On Wisconsin and Badger Insider, do not use graduation years in photo captions unless the individuals’ names do not appear elsewhere in a story; if one or some people are mentioned in an article that accompanies the photo, and one or others are not, use graduation years for all of the people listed in the photo caption; do not use boldface with names and graduation years in captions; see also photo references/identification.
Carillon
uppercase for the bell tower on campus
chair
not chairman, chairwoman, chairperson
Chancellor
Rebecca Blank, University of Wisconsin–Madison chancellor Rebecca Blank, UW–Madison chancellor Rebecca Blank, UW chancellor Rebecca Blank, the chancellor
chancellor’s office
see Office of the Chancellor
chapters/clubs
see alumni chapters/clubs
Chazen Museum of Art
formerly known as the Elvehjem Museum of Art
cheesemaker
one word
Chican@ and Latin@ Studies
Chryst, Paul
the head football coach’s degree year is ’88
cities
Use this list to determine whether to include a state or country name after the city name; if it’s on this list, the city name may stand alone

International cities:

Barcelona, Beijing, Hong Kong, London, Madrid, Mexico City, Moscow, Munich, Paris, Rome, and Tokyo; but do use the country with Seoul, South Korea

U.S. cities:

Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Green Bay, Honolulu, Houston, Indianapolis, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Madison (except if it’s Madison in a state other than Wisconsin), Manhattan Miami, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New Orleans, New York City (when identified this way, but not just New York for the city), Omaha, Orlando, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Salt Lake City, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, Tampa, Twin Cities, and Tucson; but do use the state with Kansas City (Missouri or Kansas); Portland (Oregon or Maine); and St. Louis (Missouri)
civil/governmental titles
see CMS 8.21 and titles of people
Class of …
capitalize Class when referring to an entire graduating class; see also graduation classes
class years
see degree years
co
our dictionary advocates spellings such as copresident, cofounder, coeditor, coauthor, and codirector with no hyphens; see the dictionary for the few exceptions that use hyphens
College Library at Helen C. White Hall
This is the proper name of the library that is often (incorrectly) referred to as the Helen C. White Library or White Library or just Helen C.
colleges
see schools and colleges
commas
in a series of three or more elements, use a serial comma; for Inside UW–Madison and news communications and institutional websites maintained by University Communications, do not use a serial comma
commencement
lowercase for generic references to the ceremony; uppercase can be used in the official titles of events
communication arts
lowercase
compare with, compare to
per CMS 5.220, compare with means to discern both similarities and differences; compare to notes primarily similarities
comprehensive campaign
Use lowercase to refer to this multi-year campaign with campus audiences when not using its proper name; refer to it only by its proper name to noncampus audiences; use campaign on second reference; the proper name of the fourth comprehensive campaign in university history, going on now, is All Ways Forward, which uses initial caps, roman type, and no quotation marks.
comprise
to include or contain (the whole comprises the parts): Wisconsin comprises 26 counties; it is synonymous with composed of: Wisconsin is composed of 26 counties; comprised of is incorrect
Congress
uppercase when referring to the U.S. Congress (or just Congress), which comprises the Senate and the House of Representatives; see also CMS 8.61
contractions
Contractions should be avoided and should be used only for effect in casual usage.
couple
words that stand for a group of things can mean the group as a whole (and thus take a singular verb) or the individual members of the group (and thus, a plural verb); the presence of the before the word often indicates that it’s singular: The couple lives in apartment 9A; when a comes before the word, and especially when of comes after it, it’s probably plural: A couple of professors live in apartment 9A
couples’ names
see names and degrees
course numbers and titles
Use the department abbreviation (or full name) with a space separating the department, the course number, and the course name: Poli Sci 377 Nuclear Weapons and World Politics; department abbreviations appear in the Course Guide; when referring to courses without including the number, do not use quotation marks: Physical Systems of the Environment, Solid State Physics.
coursework
one word
court cases
Italicize the names of legal cases, including the abbreviation v. (for versus): Bloomfield Village Drain Dist. v. Keefe, Miranda v. Arizona; a case name may be shortened in subsequent discussion: the Miranda case or simply Miranda; see also versus and CMS 8.81.
courtesy titles
In general, do not use Dr., Mrs., Mr., or Ms. A written-out courtesy title that helps to put a person’s role in context (President Kennedy, Chancellor Blank, Dean Scholz, Professor Jenkins) may be used on first reference.
credits
when clustered or in a tabular format, use numerals: 3 credits, a 4-credit course, 1 credit hour; when including the number of credits in a list of courses, use the abbreviation cr with no period: Poli Sci 377 Nuclear Weapons and World Politics, 3 cr; Music 231 Elementary/Intermediate Violin, 2–4 cr.; in running text, spell out credits: All students must take 3 credits in art history; for additional examples, see the academic catalogs
crew
crew team is redundant; it’s crew, the crew, or the team; see also teams
Cross-College Advising Service (CCAS)
hyphenate Cross-College
Daily Cardinal, the
although The is in its official name, use lowercase roman type for “the”; see CMS 8.168
Dane County Farmers’ Market
dashes
see em dashes and en dashes
data
plural when referring to a collection of individual units; singular when referred to as a unit: the data is sound
dates
Use a comma after a date that includes the year: Students must submit an application by March 3, 2017, to be eligible for the program; do not use a comma with a month and year if there is no date included: fall 2016, March 2017; see also CMS 9.63
Day of Learning (DOL)
coordinated by the Wisconsin Alumni Association
Day-of-Game Package (DOG)
coordinated by the Wisconsin Alumni Association
dean
Dean Jane Doe; Jane Doe, dean; the dean; dean's list
(also see academic titles)
Dean of Students Office
offers assistance and support for students across campus
dean’s list
list of high-achieving students
decades
examples are the nineties, the 1980s and 1990s, the 1980s and ’90s; see also CMS 9.34
degree year and student status
when referring to a current student, either use an x or make a reference to his/her academic year status (but not both): John Borman x’17 or John Borman, a junior
degree years
use only on the first reference within an article; do not include letters before a bachelor’s degree; do not use periods with the degree abbreviation; do not use a space between the degree and two-digit class year; use a close single quote (apostrophe) to precede the year (it’s ’, not ‘); use a comma to separate each degree: Jim Hoyt ’65, MS’67, PhD’70. If someone did not — or has not yet — graduated from UW–Madison, use an x before the year that s/he would have graduated or will graduate: rock star Steve Miller x’67. There is no space between the x and the year; include the apostrophe with the year; with advanced degrees, the x goes between the degree and the year: MDx’61, DVMx’75, PhDx’54, MAx’90. Write out degree years occurring in the 19th century as, e.g., John Bluephie 1880, MS1883, PhD1885. Write out degree years occurring in the 20th century between (and including) 1900 and the current degree year (which, if it is currently, e.g., 2016) as, e.g., Jane Brownstone 1900, MA1902, PhD1905; but Harvey Greengrass 1913, MA1915, PhD’18. When a new graduation year dawns, add 19 to the corresponding 20th-century year in a rolling, 100-year fashion. see also names and degrees for the treatment of couples’ names
degrees
in running text, use bachelor’s degree, bachelor of arts degree, bachelor of science in physics, master’s degree, doctorate, and the like in place of degree abbreviations because they are more readable; use abbreviations only when necessary to distinguish the specific type of degree or when using full terms would prove cumbersome, such as when there are multiple degrees; do not use periods; form the plural by adding an s; the word degree should not follow a degree abbreviation. Do not list certificates (nursing, law, education, and the like) as degrees, but an exception is made to include the Farm and Industry Short Course (ag short course) following an individual’s name because the program has a long and proud history at the UW. Here are many of the degree abbreviations in use at the university:
  • BA - bachelor of arts, bachelor’s degree
  • BBA - bachelor of business administration
  • BM - bachelor of music
  • BS - bachelor of science, bachelor’s degree
  • DJ or DJS - doctor of juridical science
  • DMA - doctor of musical arts
  • DPM - doctor of pharmacy
  • DVM - doctor of veterinary medicine
  • EdD - doctor of education
  • EMBA - executive MBA
  • JD - doctor of law
  • LLB - bachelor of laws
  • LLM - master of laws, but use MLaws instead
  • MA - master of arts, master’s degree
  • MAcc - master of accountancy; use instead of MAC, MA, or MS
  • MBA - master of business administration
  • MD - doctor of medicine
  • MFA - master of fine arts
  • MLI - master of legal institutions
  • MM - master of music
  • MPA - master of public affairs
  • MPh - master of philosophy
  • MPH - master of public health
  • MS - master of science, master’s degree
  • MSW - master of social work; MSW (vs. MSSW) is the more common designation
  • PDE - professional development/engineering
  • PhD - doctor of philosophy
Democrat
see CMS 8.65
department names
Department of Theatre and Drama; the theatre and drama department; the department; the zoology and bacteriology departments
Department of Athletics
see athletics department
departments
Capitalize when used as part of a complete, formal, and official name: Department of Art History. Lowercase when used as an informal name, generically, or casually as a descriptor: the art history department, the political science department, the department, department guidelines, department chair, a political science committee, the zoology and bacteriology departments. Use lowercase on second reference: the College of Letters & Science, the college; the Law School, the school; UW–Madison, the university, the UW; the Department of History, the history department, the department; the Center for Limnology, the limnology center, the center; the Office of the Secretary of the Faculty, the office. Words such as department can be omitted on second reference: history, philosophy. Do not capitalize department names when they are used to indicate the subject a professor teaches: Dave Brown of anthropology.
dictionary
recommended: most recent edition of Merriam–Webster's Collegiate Dictionary
different from, different than
use from, not than
Dinners On Wisconsin! (DOW):
use an initial cap for On and include an exclamation mark
Discovery Building
see Wisconsin Institutes for Discovery
DoIT (Division of Information Technology)
provides central IT services and support to campus
dollar figures
see CMS 9.21 and 9.25
dormitory, dorm
use residence hall instead
earth, Earth
see CMS 8.139
Editor’s Note
used in articles and after letters to the editor to give further explanations; put the words Editor’s Note: (with a colon) in italics; use roman type for the rest of the text, with no parentheses or brackets around the note
eldercare
one word
Elderhostel
initial cap
ellipses
put a space between the word and the ellipsis points: word#…#word; word#…; or complete sentence.#…#complete sentence. see also CMS 13.48–13.56
Elvehjem Museum of Art
the former name of the Chazen Museum of Art
em dashes
An em dash sets off an amplifying or explanatory element, separates a subject or series of subjects, or indicates a sudden break in thought or sentence structure: We will fly to Paris — if I get a raise. Put a space before and after the em dash, which is an exception to Chicago style. Do not use a pair of hyphens to create an em dash. see also en dashes, hyphens, and CMS 6.82–6.89
email
Do not hyphenate email, but hyphenate e-book, e-business, e-commerce.
email addresses
use roman type with no brackets or parentheses; put a period after the address if it falls at the end of a sentence; break it at the @ sign or a period if it’s necessary to carry it to the next line
emeritus, emerita, emeriti, emeritae
Use the singular, emeritus or emerita, when referring to one male or one female former faculty member, respectively; and the plural, emeriti or emeritae, when referring to an all-male or mixed-gender group (emeriti) or an all-female group (emeritae). The emeritus word follows the noun: professor emeritus, Professor Emeritus Jack Brown. see also alumnus, alumna, alumni, alumnae
en dashes
An en dash connects numbers and sometimes words: 2010–14, 11 a.m.–4 p.m., UW–Madison. It also shows a range in numbers and words: 20–25 people, Monday–Friday. Use an en dash with open compound modifiers: pre–School of Pharmacy course. When connecting years with from, also use the word to, not an en dash: from 1980 to 1986, not from 1980–1986. For news releases or Inside UW–Madison, use a hyphen to connect years: 1980-86. Do not put spaces on either side. see also CMS 6.78–6.81
ensure
ensure rather than insure, unless the reference is to insurance
equal opportunity/affirmative action
see Affirmative Action and Equal Opportunity Policy
ethnic studies requirement
lowercase
every day (adverb); everyday (adjective)
open when used as adverb; closed when used as adjective
Ex College
short for Alexander Meiklejohn’s 1920s Experimental College at the University of Wisconsin; use quotation marks on the first reference only; see also Meiklejohn, Alexander
Facebook
initial cap
fall
fall semester; fall 2015
farmers’ market
s’, not ‘s
fellow
capitalize when used in reference to a specific, named fellowship: He was recently named a Fulbright Fellow; in most cases, however, it will be lowercase: Jacob Hoke, a new fellow of the American Academy of Metallurgy; lowercase on all subsequent references
Field House
the official name is the Wisconsin (not UW) Field House; do not capitalize the in the Field House or the Wisconsin Field House
Fifth Quarter
initial caps
file names
use all caps and no periods for, e.g., PDF, JPEG, JPG, TIF, GIF
file share (noun); file-share (adjective); share files (verb)
options when writing about sharing files
first-come, first-served
use hyphens and separate with a comma
Flamingle
Wisconsin Alumni Association’s weekly enewsletter
follow up (verb); follow-up (noun and adjective)
open when used as a verb; hyphenated when used as noun or adjective
football Saturday(s)
see also Game Day
foreign
can be considered offensive, so find alternatives: for countries, use other countries or countries outside the United States; for languages, use languages without the word foreign when possible; for students, use international students, students from other countries, students from outside the United States; for study, use study abroad, study in other countries, study outside the United States.
foreign words and phrases
If the word is found in the main body of the dictionary, it’s become mainstream enough that it does not need to be italicized; if it’s found in the Foreign Words & Phrases section (page 1460 of the dictionary), italicize it; on second reference, such a word is not italicized; an exception is Latin scholarly words and phrases, which are not italicized; see also CMS 7.49, 7.52, and 7.53
former/birth names
see names and degrees
Forward under 40 Awards (FUF)
more than one of these awards is given out each year, so someone receives an (not the) award or one of the awards
Foundation, the
see UW Foundation
Founders’ Day(s) (FD)
use the plural possessive apostrophe
fractions
spell out simple fractions and use a hyphen: three-quarters of the book, four-fifths of the students; use numerals for more complex fractions; see also CMS 9.14–15  
Fredric March Play Circle Theater
also known as the Play Circle Theater
freshman, freshmen
Use first-year student when possible; however, the admissions office and catalog use freshman to designate class standing.
Fulbright scholar
common usage has frequently shortened the name to just Fulbright, but the fellowship program’s official name is Fulbright-Hays; there are several types of Fulbrights and various specific names for them, but they are mostly fellowships, so the generic word grant (but not scholarship) typically works when referring to them; the generic word scholar can refer to a recipient
full time (adverb); full-time (adjective)
fundraising, fundraiser (nouns)
exceptions to the dictionary, which uses hyphens
Game Day
noun or adjective
gender
Use gender–neutral words and phrases.
General Education Requirements
Use GER on second reference.
GI Bill
provides educational assistance to service members and veterans
girls
see boys, men, girls, women
GLBTAC
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender Alumni Council
Global Hot Spots lectures, Global Hot Spots series
initial caps for name of series or lectures
government terms
see CMS 8.61–8.63 regarding legislative, administrative, and governmental bodies’ terms
governmental/civil titles
see CMS 8.21 and titles of people
GPA, grade point average
spell out grade point average on first reference; use GPA on second reference; UW–Madison GPAs are based on a 4.0 scale
grades
write out grade, and use letters: a grade of B, a grade of F, an incomplete, a grade of Incomplete
Graduate School Catalog
the catalog
graduation classes
capitalize Class when referring to a specific, entire graduating class: Class of ’84; using the abbreviated form of the year is acceptable: ’59, ’98; see also degree years
Grandparents University © (GPU)
The program name was registered in 2007 without the plural possessive apostrophe on Grandparents; add the © mark on at least the first reference; using the © mark on every reference is also acceptable.
green space
two words
H’m
not h’mm
Half-Century Club, Half-Century Dinner, Half-Century Reception
use a hyphen between Half and Century
halftime
noun or adjective
headlines, subheads
See the lists below as guides to using lowercase or uppercase when these words appear in headlines and subheads. CMS 8.157 is recapped below; CMS 8.158 gives examples; CMS 8.159 discusses hyphenated compounds in headline-style titles. The cover of On Wisconsin follows sentence-style capitalization rather than headline style. For headlines in news releases and Inside UW–Madison, capitalize only the first word, proper names, and proper nouns.

Lowercase

  • articles (a, an, the)
  • prepositions, regardless of length, except when they’re used adverbially or adjectivally, when they’re stressed, or when they make up part of a Latin expression used adverbially or adjectivally: De Facto
  • the coordinating conjunctions for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so, to and as the part of a proper name that would be lowercased in text: de, von, the second part of a species name, even if it’s the last word

Uppercase

  • the first and last words in headlines and subheads, regardless of length
  • all other major words: nouns, pronouns, verbs (including Is, Are), adverbs, adjectives
  • some conjunctions
health care
two words as a noun or adjective
Helen C. White Library
there’s no such thing; see College Library at Helen C. White Hall
Hispanic/Latino
use a slash with adjectives; see also CMS 8.37
home page
two words
Homecoming (HC)
uppercase the UW event’s name; lowercase in generic usages
Homecoming parade
but UW Homecoming Parade
Homecoming Weekend
honors
honors program, honors credit, Honors in the Major (when referring to the official designation), College of Letters & Science Honors Program
House (House of Representatives)
see CMS 8.61
house fellow
two words
Huddle
see BADGER HUDDLE®
husband
see spouse, wife, husband
hyphens
In general, hyphens are joiners. Use them to avoid confusion or to form a single idea from two or more words: much-needed clothing (clothing is badly needed) versus much needed clothing (the clothing is abundant and needed). Do not use them in pairs to create an em dash. Hyphenate compound modifiers preceding a noun: well-run establishment, ill-fitting garment, full-time job, smoke-free restaurant. A compound modifier following the noun it describes does not require a hyphen, but it is not incorrect to use one: The restaurant is smoke free. When a modifier that would be hyphenated before a noun occurs instead after a form of the verb to be, the hyphen is usually retained to avoid confusion: The man is well-known, The woman is quick-witted. Compounds formed by an adverb ending in -ly plus an adjective or participle are not hyphenated before or after a noun: fashionably dressed. see also em dashes, en dashes, and CMS 6.76–6.77
inclusivity statements
WAA’s long version is: “The Wisconsin Alumni Association (WAA) is open to all alumni, students, and friends of the university. WAA encourages diversity, inclusivity, and participation by all of these groups in its activities, and does not discriminate on any basis. WAA embraces UW–Madison’s sifting and winnowing motto, which is a cherished and widely admired tradition.” WAA’s short version is: “The Wisconsin Alumni Association encourages diversity, inclusivity, nondiscrimination, and participation by all alumni, students, and friends in its activities.” The university also has a statement of non-discrimination
Incorporated, Inc.
delete when possible, but when it’s used, see CMS 6.48
initialisms
see acronyms and initialisms
initials
see middle initials
international students
see foreign
Internet but intranet
uppercase Internet but lowercase intranet
issue names, magazine
in On Wisconsin and Badger Insider magazines, capitalize the name of the season (i.e., the name of the issue), whether the year is included or not: the Spring 2015 issue, the Fall issue
it's, its
It's is the contraction for it is. Its is the possessive.
Jr., Sr., III
Do not use a comma before Jr., Sr., III, and the like; see also CMS 6.47, 9.43, and 10.19
Kickoff Classic
coordinated by WAA
kickoff, kick off
one word as a noun or adjective; two words as a verb
Kiekhofer, William (“Wild Bill”)
the late economics professor; nostalgic references are sometimes made to the Kiekhofer Wall and skyrocket cheer
Koran, Qur’an
Koran is preferred; see also CMS 8.102
L&S
College of Letters & Science (not Sciences)
La Follette
in references to Fighting Bob La Follette, Belle Case La Follette, their family, or any people or entities that have descended from them, put a space between La and Follette
LaBahn Arena
no space between La and Bahn
Lake Street Alumni Council (Lake Streeters)
This group comprises former members of the Wisconsin Alumni Student Board and Homecoming Committee.
Lakefront Gateway, Lakefront Gateway Project
comprises the Memorial Union Reinvestment, Alumni Park, and One Alumni Place
Lakeshore Path
initial caps
languages
see foreign
Latin American
no hyphen for noun or adjective usages
Latin scholarly words and phrases
see foreign words and phrases
Law School
capitalized; the Law School prefers UW Law School or University of Wisconsin Law School (not School of Law)
legal cases
see court cases
legislature
see CMS 8.61
letters used as words or referred to as letters (“letters as letters”)
see CMS 7.58–7.61
libraries
University of Wisconsin–Madison Libraries, UW–Madison Libraries, the libraries, Memorial Library, College Library
Library Mall
initial caps
life members
lowercase for this segment of WAA members
lists
Use numerals with periods rather than numerals with parentheses; be consistent about capitalizing the first word of a new line or not; use a colon to introduce a list or series: The menu lists three kinds of dessert: pie, cake, and pudding; use a colon after an introductory statement that contains the words as follows or the following; use a colon or period after other statements introducing lists.
login, logon, logoff as nouns; log in, log on, log off as verbs
example: my login is tammyfae, but I login to my account.
Lowell Center, the
lowercase the in running text; in stacked information (e.g., in invitations), use just Lowell Center (not The Lowell Center)
Madison
use Madison to refer to the city, not the UW–Madison campus; referring to the Madison campus is acceptable when it’s clear that the UW System is the subject
Madison Area Technical College (MATC)
during the college’s period of transition from Madison Area Technical College (MATC) to Madison College, perhaps the best approach is to call it Madison College (formerly Madison Area Technical College)
Madison College
see Madison Area Technical College (MATC)
Madison Magazine
initial caps, italicize
magazine issues
see issue names, magazine
maiden/birth/former names
see names and degrees
majors
Do not capitalize majors, programs, specializations, or concentrations of study when they are not part of an official department name or title, but proper nouns are capitalized: She received a bachelor’s degree in history; She majored in economics; He majored in English and French; view a list of undergraduate majors
March, Fredric
not Frederick
marching band
see UW Marching Band, UW Varsity Band
marines
see CMS 8.111
Martin and Florence Below Alumni Center, the
WAA’s headquarters building at 650 N. Lake Street is currently called the Martin and Florence Below (pronounced BEE-loh) Alumni Center; subsequent references are the Below Alumni Center, the alumni center, or the center; when renovation is complete in 2017, the building will include One Alumni Place, adjacent to Alumni Park
Martin, Biddy (Carolyn)
use former chancellor Biddy Martin; her degree year is PhD’85
Matching Dollar Scholarship Program
University Foundation matched funds raised by alumni chapters.
matching gift (noun), matching-gift (adjective)
He will make a matching gift; Fill out the matching-gift form; Use the matching-gift process online; see also CMS 5.91 and 7.81
Meiklejohn, Alexander
founder of the Experimental College at UW–Madison in the 1920s; see also Ex College
Memorial Union
see Wisconsin Union
Memorial Union Theater
there’s no such thing; the proper title is the Wisconsin Union Theater; also called the Union Theater
men
see boys, men, girls, women
Meyerhoff Undergraduate Excellence Awards
initial caps
mic
see mike, mic
mid
compound words using this prefix are closed when the second word is not a proper noun or a figure: midweek, midterm, midsummer, but mid-January, mid-1960s
middle initials
In general, do not use a middle initial unless the person is adamant about including it or it appears in the official name of an endowment, foundation, award, scholarship, or the like.
mike, mic
Use mike, not mic, for the abbreviation of microphone.
military organizations
see CMS 8.111
money
see CMS 9.21 and 9.25
Monona Terrace Convention Center
the official name of the downtown-Madison convention center; it should not be called (anything resembling) the Frank Lloyd Wright Convention Center
months
Spell out in running text when not used with a day of the week: February 2, 2017. Abbreviate January (Jan.), February (Feb.), August (Aug.), September (Sept.), October (Oct.), November (Nov.), and December (Dec.) when used with a day of the week: Thursday, Feb. 2, 2017. Do not abbreviate March, April, May, June, or July. The following style is also acceptable: 28 March 2017. When writing for news releases or Inside UW–Madison, abbreviate months when used with a date, with the exception of March, April, May, June, and July, which are always spelled out. See also CMS 9.63.
moon
see CMS 8.140
more than, over
Use more than when something can be counted: She bought more than 20 books; in general, over refers to spatial relationships: She jumped over the chair
Motion W
W is uppercase Roman, not italic
Muslim, Moslem
Muslim is preferred; see CMS 8.95
My UW
the personalized web portal for UW–Madison and a single entry point into secure information provided by the university (My UW); it gives students access to information on grades, tuition accounts, financial aid, and housing.
names and degrees
To clarify how to use birth/former names, married names, and degrees with couples, here are some examples. Badger Insider’s sustainers section, however, does not follow this convention: John Wilson ’56 Mabel Smith Wilson ’57 John Wilson ’56 and Mabel Smith Wilson ’57 John Wilson ’56 and Mabel Smith-Wilson ’57 John Wilson ’56 and Mabel Smith ’57 John Smith-Wilson ’56 and Mabel Smith-Wilson ’57 John Wilson and Mabel Smith Wilson ’57 John Wilson ’56 and Mabel Smith Wilson (or just Mabel Wilson, because she doesn’t have a grad year, and thus, we’d probably leave out the birth/former name) John Wilson ’56, JD’58, PhD’60 and Mabel Smith Wilson ’57, MA’59, DVM’62 The sustainers list in Badger Insider uses a more condensed format that doesn’t include birth/former names; for the obituary listings in Badger Insider, do include birth/former names. John ’56 and Mabel ’57 Wilson John Wilson ’56 and Mabel Smith-Wilson ’57 John ’56 and Mabel ’57 Smith-Wilson John and Mabel ’57 Wilson John ’56 and Mabel Wilson John ’56, JD’58, PhD’60 and Mabel ’57, MA’59, DVM’62 Wilson John Wilson ’56 and Mabel Smith ’57 If a last name is hyphenated, use the first name of the hyphenated pair for alphabetical-order purposes. If there are three names (one first and two that appear to be last names), but the second two are not hyphenated, use the third name (i.e., the second last name) for alphabetical-order purposes.
names in appositive form
Use commas when there is only one such person because it’s redundant information; do not use commas when there is more than one such person; see also CMS 5.21. An example: Mary’s husband, John, and her son Greg went with her. In this example, Mary has only one husband, so his name is set off by commas: John is a “restatement” of husband. Mary has more than one son, so the commas with Greg are eliminated to show which son is being referred to specifically, from among the other possibilities. If she had only one son, his name would also be set off with commas.
National Geographic Magazine
Italicize the whole title, even though the organization has dropped the word Magazine from the title.
National Institutes of Health
despite the plural Institutes, it takes a singular verb
Native, Native American
no hyphen in all usages; see also American Indian
navy
see CMS 8.111
Nine Eleven
9/11 is acceptable in references to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks; see also CMS 9.36
non
The rules of prefixes apply, but in general, do not use a hyphen with non: noncredit, nondegree, nondiscrimination, nonsexist, nonprofit, nontraditional. But, non-music major, non-need-based assistance, non-work-study jobs.
nonsexist language
Avoid gender-specific words; use synthetic, manufactured, artificial, not manmade; use people or humans, not men or mankind; use chair, not chairman; use his or her, not his/her; can rewrite a sentence using plural pronouns if possible to eliminate gender
Northwoods
the name of the WAA alumni chapter in the Minocqua/Rhinelander/Eagle River area and for references to the northern region of Wisconsin; use north woods for generic references
numbers
representing some departures from Chicago style (which covers numbers in Chapter 9):
  • spell out zero through nine
  • use numerals for 10 and higher
  • use numerals with thousands, ten thousands, and hundred thousands (4,000; 50,019; 100,000; 807,996)
  • with round numbers greater than one million (million, billion, trillion), write out the words for one million (or billion, etc.) through nine million; use the numeral and word for numbers that begin with 10 and higher (10 million, 64 billion, 835 trillion)
  • for large, round fractions using decimal points, use a numeral and spell out million, etc. (2.3 million, 4.5 billion, 8.7 trillion)
  • the same rules apply to ordinals (second, 21st, 127th) that apply to cardinals (two, 21, 127); do not superscript ordinals
  • page numbers are always numerals, including 1 through 9, no matter where they appear
  • in course catalogs, use numerals for credits (1 credit, 24 credits, a 2-credit course)
  • spell out a number at the beginning of a sentence (Twenty-five students are enrolled. Three credits of history must be completed by the senior year.)
  • do not hyphenate number as part of a compound adjective (number one city, number two ranked team) or as a predicate adjective (We are number one in the league.)
Numen Lumen
use initial caps and roman
off campus (adverb); off-campus (adjective)
open when used as adverb; hyphenated when used as adjective
Office of Admissions and Recruitment
admissions office is acceptable on subsequent references
Office of the Chancellor
chancellor’s office is acceptable on subsequent references
Office of the Provost
provost’s office is acceptable on subsequent references
Official Badger Bowl Tour
joint WAA/UW Department of Athletics tour to a bowl game
Ohio State University
Do not include the or The before the name of the institution.
okay
not OK, O.K., ok, or o.k
on campus (adverb), on-campus (adjective)
open when used as adverb; hyphenated when used as adjective.
On Wisconsin magazine (OW)
“magazine” is lowercase roman. On Wisconsin magazine, originally called The Wisconsin Alumni Magazine, was first published in 1899. Its name changed several times, from The Wisconsin Alumnus to just Wisconsin Alumnus to Wisconsin Alumni to On Wisconsin magazine.
On Wisconsin Society, The (TOWS)
replaced Homecoming Court
On, Wisconsin!
This beloved expression comes from the UW’s beloved fight song; it includes a comma because it’s a form of direct address; when it’s run into a longer sentence such as Thanks, and on, Wisconsin!, the on becomes lowercase.
One Alumni Place
the space attached to the Martin and Florence Below Alumni Center; it opens onto Alumni Park
one-time, onetime
One-time means that something happened only once; onetime means former.
online
closed, no hyphen
Ortalo-Magné, François
former dean of the Wisconsin School of Business; use the hyphen, the accent aigu (= é) and the cédille (= ç)
over, more than
see more than, over
p.m., a.m.
see times
page numbers
Use numerals for all page numbers (even 1), no matter where they appear.
Parents Program
not plural possessive
Parents’ Campaign
initial caps
Parents’ Day
usually used in reference to the football-game day when parents of players visit Camp Randall and are honored at halftime; not affiliated with the Parents Program’s Family Weekend
Parents’ Fund
initial caps
part time (adverb), part-time (adjective)
open when used as an adverb; hyphenated when used as an adjective
pass/fail
lowercase
PEOPLE
all caps; stands for Pre-College Enrichment Opportunity Program for Learning Excellence; adding program after PEOPLE is redundant
people’s titles
see titles of people
percentages
use numerals and spell out the word percent: 1 percent, 3 percent, 89 percent; do not hyphenate the numeral and percent when they function as a compound adjective: 4 percent jump; the symbol % is acceptable in lists, tables, and charts, but not in running text except in scientific, mathematical, and highly technical contexts; see also CMS 9.18
photo captions
see captions
photo credits
use something like this, with colons and semicolons: Front cover (3): John Brown; inside right: Larry Holmes; inside left (2): Jeff Miller; back cover, top: Paula Abdul; back cover (left center, right center, bottom): Harry Reasoner
policy-making
noun and adjective; see policymaker
policymaker
one word
political affiliations/parties
Put D, R, or I (for Independent) in parentheses, followed by a hyphen, followed by the two-letter state code in national references or the city name in state references: John Smith (D-WI), Matt Johnson (R-MA), Jack Johnson (I-Wauwatosa); see also CMS 8.65
Posse
not an acronym; use an initial cap (but not all caps) in references to the Posse Foundation
PowerPoint
one word
pre and post
Most compound words using these prefixes do not take a hyphen: postdoctoral, postsecondary, preprofessional, preenrollment, but post mortem. (also see prefixes)
prefixes
many words are moving from open to hyphenated to closed, so consult the dictionary
pregame
do not hyphenate
presale
do not hyphenate
President
UW System President Jane Doe; president of the UW System; the president (even when referring to the president of the United States)
president-elect
prizes
see awards, prizes
problem solving (noun), problem-solving (adjective)
open when used as a noun; hyphenated when used as an adjective.
ProQuest Research Library
uppercase Q in ProQuest
provost
Provost John Doe; the provost; the provost's office; Office of the Provost.
pull quotes
Put quotation marks around material if it is a quotation within the article; do not use quotation marks if the material is merely pulled text; do not use brackets for inserted material because they create clutter.
punctuation
Use the Chicago Manual of Style for nonnews material; use the Associated Press Stylebook for news releases and Inside UW–Madison.
Pyle Center, the
lowercase the in running text; in stacked information (e.g., in invitations), use just Pyle Center (not The Pyle Center)
Q & A
Put a space before and after the ampersand.
quotations
In front of the attribution line following a quotation, use an em dash and a space: “Why wonder why when you’re green?”                               — Kermit the Frog
Qur’an, Koran
Koran is preferred; see also CMS 8.102
R&D
Use when referring to research and development work, departments, or efforts; no space before or after the ampersand.
Rathskeller
note the -er ending; its nicknames are the Rath and the Rat
re
Most compound words using this prefix do not take a hyphen; with some, however, a hyphen is added to indicate that something is happening again: recover (to improve) vs. re-cover (cover again), recreate (to enjoy leisure) vs. re-create (to create again); the admissions office uses re-entry student; see also prefixes
recommended references
The Chicago Manual of Style. 16th ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2010. The Associated Press Stylebook, 2014. Merriam–Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed., Springfield, Mass.: Merriam–Webster, 2003. Strunk, William, Jr., and E.B. White. The Elements of Style, 4th ed., Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2000.
recreate; re-create
These are two different words.
Red Shirt, The™
see The Red Shirt
regent, regents
lowercase when referring to one regent or such a group generically; uppercase when using the full, formal name of UW–Madison’s group: the UW System Board of Regents; see also board of directors, board of regents, board of visitors and UW System Board of Regents
registered marks, trademarks
do not use ™ or ® in journalistic text, but they are used with, e.g., The Red Shirt™, the Wisconsin Alumni Association®, and BADGER HUDDLE®; see also CMS 8.152
registrar
Office of the Registrar, registrar’s office
representative (in Congress)
see CMS 8.21
Republican
see CMS 8.65
research and development
see R&D
ResNet
the Residential Network; managed by the Division of University Housing’s Information Technology Department
rock ’n’ roll
Use apostrophes around n.
rowing team
see crew and teams
RSVP
French for Répondez, s’il vous plait, which means Please respond; using please with the phrase is redundant because the SVP portion already says that; do not use it as a noun; Please reply, Please respond, or Please register are good substitutes
sala
the Thai pavilion given to Madison by WAA’s Thailand alumni chapter; located in Madison’s Olbrich Gardens; italicize it on first reference but not subsequent references; lowercase it always
salutations
Use a comma, not a colon, following salutations.
schools/colleges
  • College of Agricultural & Life Sciences; the college; CALS
  • Wisconsin School of Business; UW–Madison’s business school; the school
  • School of Education; the school
  • College of Engineering; the college
  • Graduate School
  • School of Human Ecology; the school; SOHE
  • College of Letters & Science; the college; L&S
  • School of Journalism and Mass Communication; the school
  • School of Library and Information Studies; the school
  • School of Music; the school
  • School of Social Work; the school
  • School of Medicine and Public Health; the school
  • School of Pharmacy; the school
  • School of Veterinary Medicine; the school
  • University of Wisconsin Law School; UW Law School; the school
scores
Use numerals and an en dash between the numerals of sports scores; see CMS 6.78
seasons
lowercase: summer session, fall semester, fall 2017, winter break, spring break
semester
lowercase: fall semester, spring semester; UW–Madison is on the semester system, so refer to a semester rather than a term
semiannual
see biannual, biennial, semiannual
semimonthly, semiweekly
see bimonthly, biweekly, semimonthly, semiweekly
Senate
see CMS 8.61
senator
see CMS 8.21
send-off (noun and adjective), send off (verb)
senior class gift
lower case
Senior Toast
initial caps
sexist language
see nonsexist language
sic
used in roman text, with brackets, following an incorrectly used word or phrase to indicate that it’s a mistake made by the person who’s quoted, not by the writer; frequently written as '[sic]'
sleeved
use sleeved vs. sleeve with adjectives: long-sleeved T-shirt
spacing after end punctuation
one space, not two
speakers bureau
no apostrophe; it is not possessive
Special student
capitalize Special
spirit squad
lowercase unless it’s the UW Spirit Squad; see also UW Spirit Squad
sports scores
see scores
spouse, wife, husband
all are acceptable
spring
lowercase
spring semester
lowercase
Sr.
see Jr., Sr., III
Student Campaign
like Annual Campaign, initial-cap this reference to the overall Student Campaign
student classifications
lowercase freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior when referring to an individual student or to the class as a whole (She is a senior history major; The senior class sponsored the lecture)
student-athlete
with a hyphen
subheads
see headlines, subheads
summer
lowercase
summer session
lowercase
System Board of Regents, UW
see UW System Board of Regents
System campuses
use an en dash; uppercase System with UW System institutions, which comprise UW Colleges Online, two-year campuses, and four-year campuses: UW–Baraboo/Sauk County, UW–Barron County, UW–Eau Claire, UW–Fond du Lac, UW–Fox Valley, UW–Green Bay, UW–La Crosse, UW–Madison, UW–Manitowoc, UW–Marathon County, UW–Marinette, UW–Marshfield/Wood County, UW–Milwaukee, UW–Oshkosh, UW–Parkside, UW–Platteville, UW–Richland, UW–River Falls, UW–Rock County, UW–Sheboygan, UW–Stevens Point, UW–Stout, UW–Superior, UW–Washington County, UW–Waukesha, UW–Whitewater; see also CMS 6.80
TA, TAs
no periods in this abbreviation for teaching (not teacher or teacher’s) assistant
teaching assistant
see TA, TAs
teams
use these forms: Olympic team, U.S. national team, UW men’s basketball team; use rowing team or crew when referring to rowers because crew team is redundant; see also crew
telephone numbers
Include the area code when the audience is off campus. Separate the area code from the number with a hyphen in all uses. E.g., 608-123-4567.
tense
Use the present tense when reporting ongoing work, current affairs, and impromptu remarks of speakers; use past tense to report remarks made in speeches, votes, actions of committees, and other one-time past events: Brower says the work will be complete by summer. The chancellor told the Faculty Senate in her address last week that the budget would pass.
Terrace, the
lowercase the, capitalize Terrace when referring to the Memorial Union Terrace; use wording that could not be confused with Madison’s Monona Terrace Convention Center; see also Monona Terrace Convention Center
that and which
Use that for essential clauses; use which for nonessential (parenthetical) clauses: General Education Requirements, which include courses in mathematics, must be satisfied; Credits that must be completed before the senior year fall into two categories.
The as part of a publication’s or organization’s title
Although many entities officially include The as part of their titles, put the word in lowercase roman type; see also CMS 8.168
The Red Shirt ™(TRS)
use the ™ on at least the first reference; using the ™ on every reference is also acceptable; always include and capitalize The
The University of Wisconsin–Madison
Official name of the UW System branch in Madison. Use en dash between University of Wisconsin and Madison. Spell out for external publications or publications that will be read widely off campus on first reference. UW–Madison is acceptable on second reference and for all references for internal communication. Also acceptable on second reference (in a context that is clearly UW–Madison) is “ the UW.” The University of Wisconsin was founded in 1848, the first class was held in February 1849.The University of Wisconsin–Madison did not exist until 1971, when the Legislature established the University of Wisconsin System, merging the University of Wisconsin and the Wisconsin State University system.He selected UW–Madison for its doctoral program. The UW has been a good choice for him.
theatre, theater
Use theater except when theatre is used in a formal title. University Theatre, Department of Theatre and Drama, Hemsley Theatre, Mitchell Theatre; but Wisconsin Union Theater and Theater Gallery. Hemsley and Mitchell theatres are in Vilas Hall. Theater Gallery is in Memorial Union.
time zones
lowercase central standard time, eastern time zone, mountain daylight time, and the like except references to Pacific: Pacific daylight time; capitalize abbreviations: CDT, EST; see also CMS 8.89
times
  • use figures (8 p.m., 4 a.m.) except for noon (12 p.m.) and midnight (12 a.m.)
  • use a colon to separate hours from minutes
  • use lowercase, periods, and no space between the letters for a.m. and p.m.
  • do not include a colon or minutes if the time is exactly on the hour (11 a.m., but 3:30 p.m.)
  • avoid redundancies such as 10 a.m. in the morning
  • with time ranges, use the words from and to, not from and an en dash (from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m., not from 9 a.m.–2 p.m.)
  • with time ranges without the word from, use an en dash with no spaces (Monday–Friday, 2–4 p.m.); if both times are a.m. or p.m., include the a.m. or p.m. with the later time only (8 to 11:30 a.m., 1:30–5 p.m., but 9 a.m.–2 p.m.)
  • when preparing copy for news releases or Inside UW–Madison, use a hyphen, not an en dash or the word to (from 9 a.m.-2 p.m.)
  • see also CMS 9.38, 9.39, and 10.42
titles of people
In general, titles are capitalized only when they are formal titles directly before a name: (Chancellor Jane Doe, Professor John Doe; but the chancellor, the professor). Do not confuse titles with occupation descriptions: movie star Bette Davis, astronaut John Glenn. Titles that precede names and refer to more than one person with the same title are capitalized in plural form (Professors Jane Doe and John Doe).
titles of works
see CMS 8.154–8.197 and follow the guidelines below, which include specific CMS references; when preparing copy for news releases or Inside UW–Madison, refer to the Associated Press Stylebook/cite>

italicize (and use initial caps) for these titles

  • albums: 8.192
  • annual reports: 8.183
  • art exhibits: 8.195
  • art pieces/art works: 8.193
  • blogs: 8.187
  • books: 8.166
  • brochures: 8.183
  • cartoons (printed): 8.194

CDs: 8.192

  • choreographed dance works
  • comic strips/comics series: 8.194
  • concerts
  • dance works with titles
  • documentaries (films): 8.185
  • drawings: 8.193
  • DVDs: 8.192
  • epic/long poems (vs. short poems): 8.179
  • films: 8.185
  • long musical compositions: 8.189
  • magazines: 8.169
  • movies: 8.185
  • newsletters
  • newspapers: 8.168

online versions of any of these; add the URL if helpful

  • oratorios
  • operas: 8.189
  • paintings: 8.193
  • pamphlets: 8.183
  • periodicals
  • photographs (individual images): 8.193
  • plays: 8.181
  • podcasts
  • poems (epic/long): 8.179
  • published works
  • radio series (not one-time programs or individual episodes): 8.185
  • reports: 8.183
  • statues: 8.193
  • television series (not one-time programs or individual episodes): 8.185

use roman type, initial caps, and quotation marks for these titles

  • chapters (book chapters): 8.175
  • clickable buttons on a website
  • dissertations: 8.184
  • essays: 8.175
  • lectures: 8.86
  • magazine articles: 8.175
  • manuscripts
  • newspaper articles: 8.175

online versions of any of these; add the URL if helpful

  • poems (short): 8.179
  • presentations
  • prom themes
  • radio episodes or one-time programs (not continuing series): 8.185
  • short musical compositions: 8.189
  • short poems (vs. epic/long poems): 8.179
  • short stories: 8.175
  • songs: 8.189
  • speeches: 8.86
  • television episodes or one-time programs (not continuing series) - 8.185
  • theses: 8.184
  • unpublished works: 8.184
  • YouTube videos

use roman type, most likely capitalized, with no quotation marks, for the these titles

  • artworks of antiquity: 8.193
  • awards (middle initials are acceptable if they’re named after people) - 8.82
  • book series: 8.174
  • campaigns
  • catalogs
  • classes: 8.85
  • conferences
  • courses: 8.85
  • film series
  • forums
  • games (board, card, children’s, active are typically lowercase; brand-named are uppercase)
  • lecture series: 8.86
  • magazine columns: 8.175
  • newspaper columns: 8.175

online versions of any of these; add the URL if helpful

  • prizes (middle initials are acceptable if they’re named after people) - 8.82
  • seminar-type programs
  • symphonies and other long instrumental compositions: 8.190
  • symposia
  • video games
  • websites
  • workshops
  • works of antiquity

On Wisconsin and Badger Insider magazines

  • On Wisconsin magazine
  • Badger Insider magazine
  • department titles are roman, with no quotation marks
  • feature article titles are roman, with quotation marks
toll-free
Use the hyphen when it precedes a noun; no hyphen when it follows the noun.
trademarks
see registered marks, trademarks
type treatment with punctuation
see CMS 6.2–6.4
U-Rah-Rah
generally, use hyphens and initial caps; however, in some design contexts, all caps and/or no hyphens may be more accommodating
U.S.
see United States, U.S.
UK
no periods; see also CMS 8.21
UN
no periods; see also CMS 8.61
under way (adverb); underway (adjective)
open when used as an adverb; hyphenated when used as an adjective.
Union South
see Wisconsin Union
Union Theater
The proper name is the Wisconsin Union Theater; it is not the Memorial Union Theater.
Union, the
see Wisconsin Union
United States (noun); U.S. (adjective and noun);
periods with U.S. is a departure from Chicago style
university
capitalize only as part of a formal title on first reference; always lowercase on second reference
University Book Store, The (UBS)
Although “The” is in its official name, use lowercase roman type for “the”; here Book Store is two words, but normally bookstore is one word.
University Club
initial caps
University Health Services (UHS)
use plural Services
University Housing
not Division of University Housing
University of Wisconsin Foundation
see UW Foundation (UWF)
University of Wisconsin–Madison, the
Use an en dash rather than a hyphen. This is the official name of the UW System branch in Madison. Spell out on first reference in publications that will be read widely off campus. Capitalize The only as a formal title in a formal reference, such as in the headline of a program; generally, though, lowercase the. UW–Madison is acceptable on second reference and in all internal communication; the UW is acceptable on second reference in a context that is clearly UW–Madison; university is also acceptable on second reference. See also CMS 6.46 and 6.81 and University of Wisconsin, the; UW–Madison (no the); and UW, the.
University of Wisconsin, the
Capitalize The only as a formal title in a formal reference, such as in the headline of a program; generally, though, lowercase the; university is acceptable on second reference; see also University of Wisconsin–Madison, the; UW–Madison (no the); and UW, the.
University Ridge golf course
lowercase golf course
University Theatre
not Theater
university-wide
but campuswide, citywide, countywide, nationwide, statewide, systemwide, worldwide
URL
stands for Uniform Resource Locator, an Internet address style for addresses: e.g, http://www.wisc.edu/pubs/ug/index.html, though typically shortened to, e.g., wisc.edu/pubs/ug/index.html; see also website (URL) addresses
UW
UW is acceptable when referring to athletic teams or many health-related departments that do not use UW–Madison as part of their official name (UW Hospital, UW Comprehensive Cancer Center, UW Foundation), or as an abbreviated reference to the University of Wisconsin System as a whole (UW budget; students enrolled at UW institutions). If context is clearly UW–Madison, it is acceptable to use “the UW” on second reference. Do not use UW as a substitute for UW–Madison.
UW athletics
see athletics department
UW Band Alumni Association (UWBAA)
UW Colleges
part of the UW System, this entity comprises 13 two-year campuses statewide.
UW Colleges Online
online courses taught by UW Colleges instructors
UW Department of Athletics
see athletics department
UW Field House
The official name is the Wisconsin (not UW) Field House; do not capitalize the in the Field House or the Wisconsin Field House.
UW Foundation (UWF)
use the Foundation (capitalized) or UWF (never the UWF) in subsequent references
UW Homecoming Parade
but Homecoming parade
UW Libraries
This umbrella title refers to all libraries on this campus.
UW Marching Band, UW Varsity Band
The university’s best-known band is called the UW Marching Band in the fall (when it marches) and the UW Varsity Band in the spring (when it plays indoor concerts); use marching band on second reference when discussing the UW Marching Band.
UW Showcase series
lowercase series
UW System
UW System comprises 13 four-year term universities, 13 freshman-sophomore UW Colleges campuses and statewide UW-Extension.
UW System Board of Regents
The 17-member panel that oversees the University of Wisconsin System; use UW System Board of Regents on first reference; use regents, board of regents, or board on second reference; see also board of directors, board of regents, board of visitors and regent, regents.
UW Varsity Band
see UW Marching Band, UW Varsity Band
UW–Extension
part of the UW System, UW–Extension offers credit and noncredit educational opportunities throughout the state; use an en dash rather than a hyphen; see also CMS 6.46 and 6.81
UW–Madison
Use an en dash between UW and Madison. Acceptable on second reference for external publications and all references for internal communication for the University of Wisconsin–Madison. Do not use the when using UW–Madison (research at UW–Madison, a faculty member at UW–Madison). To prevent confusion with other UW System units, do not use UW as a substitute for UW–Madison, except in cases where the unit is officially named "University of Wisconsin" instead of "University of Wisconsin–Madison" (UW Hospital and Clinics, UW Credit Union, UW Athletics, UW Law School).
UW–Madison (no the)
Use an en dash rather than a hyphen. Acceptable on second reference in external publications and in all internal communication for the University of Wisconsin–Madison. Do not use the with UW–Madison: research at UW–Madison. To prevent confusion with other UW System units, do not use the UW as a substitute for UW–Madison, except when the context is clearly UW–Madison or the entity is officially named University of Wisconsin rather than University of Wisconsin–Madison (UW Hospital and Clinics, UW Credit Union). See also CMS 6.46 and 6.81 and University of Wisconsin, the; and UW, the.
UW, the
Acceptable when referring to sports teams; many health-related departments that do not use UW–Madison as part of their official names (UW Health, UW Carbone Cancer Center); or as an abbreviated reference to the University of Wisconsin System (UW budget, students enrolled at UW institutions). If the context is clearly UW–Madison, it is acceptable to use the UW. Other expressions are the University of Wisconsin, the University of Wisconsin–Madison, and UW–Madison (no the). See also University of Wisconsin, the; UW–Madison (no the); and University of Wisconsin–Madison, the.
UWF’s contact information
1848 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53726-4090; 608-263-4545; toll free 800-443-6162; uwf@supportuw.org; supportuw.org
Van Hise Society, the (VHS)
for major donors to the UW; use society on second reference; do not capitalize the when calling it the Van Hise Society
vehicles
see CMS 8.115–8.116 for a discussion of the names of ships, submarines, aircraft, trains, space programs, and the class, make, and model of cars
versus, vs.
write out in text, but in sports-related marketing, the abbreviation vs. is acceptable; see also court cases
veterinary school
Its full name, the School of Veterinary Medicine, is preferred, but in cases when it’s shortened, use veterinary school, not vet school.
vice chancellor; vice president (not hyphenated)
votes
per CMS 6.78, use an en dash: The vote was 14–6
vs.
see versus, vs.
WAA
Do not use the before it; see also Wisconsin Alumni Association® (WAA). WAA’s merger with the UW Foundation was effective on July 1, 2014. The blended organization is now called the Wisconsin Foundation and Alumni Association (WFAA), used primarily with campus audiences. Both WAA and UWF maintain their separate brand identities to external alumni and donor audiences.
WAA President’s Alumni Advisory Council
also Wisconsin Alumni Association President’s Alumni Advisory Council
WAA Travel
the name of the WAA department, but alumni travel is acceptable in generic references; its toll-free phone number is 888-WAA-TRAV (922-8728); when space and time allow, include both versions of the phone number
WAA’s contact information
650 N. Lake Street, Madison, WI 53706-1476; use the zip + 4 on all references; 608-262-2551; 888-WIS-ALUM (947-2586); including the letters is helpful when viewers/listeners don’t have much time to study the number; when space and time allow, include both versions; waa@uwalumni.com; uwalumni.com
Ward, David
former UW chancellor who returned as interim (or “encore”) chancellor; degree years are MS’62, PhD’63; see also Ward, Judith
Ward, Judith
The spouse of the former chancellor is Judith Freifeld Ward ’64, a former executive associate director of UW–Madison’s Waisman Center; do not confuse her with Judith Hart Ward ’66, MS’67, spouse of David J. Ward ’65, MBA’67, PhD’72; he is a former senior vice president of academic affairs for the UW System; see also Ward, David.
Washington, DC
use a comma; no periods with DC
web page
but Web page and Web feed for newswriting
Web terms
Chicago style: website, the web, the World Wide Web, a web page AP style for newswriting:website, the Web, Web page, Web feed, webcam, webcast, webmaster
web, the
but the Web for newswriting
webcam, webcast, webmaster
website
website (URL) addresses
Test every site before publishing it; use the shortest version that works; use roman type without brackets; put a period at the end if it falls at the end of a sentence; delete the http:// and www portions of the address; do not hyphenate a word within a web address unless it actually has a hyphen; if necessary, break it after a slash or period that is part of the address; do not insert any characters or punctuation.
Wednesday Nite @ the Lab (WN@L or WN@tL)
use Nite and @
WFAA
see Wisconsin Foundation and Alumni Association (WFAA)
White Library
There’s no such thing; see College Library at Helen C. White Hall
Wienermobile
owned and operated by Oscar Mayer
wife
see spouse, wife, husband
Wiley, John D.
former UW–Madison chancellor; his degree years are MS’65, PhD’68; he prefers to use his middle initial; his spouse’s name is Georgia Blanchfield Wiley BS’82
will-call
noun or adjective; use with window when possible
Wisconsin Alumni Association President’s Alumni Advisory Council
also WAA President’s Alumni Advisory Council
Wisconsin Alumni Association® (WAA)
WAA (never the WAA) is preferred on second reference, but the association is acceptable.

Usage of the registered mark:

  • use ® only when the full name is written out, only once, and on the first reference (or first “convenient” reference)
  • punctuation follows the ®
  • do not use it in running text in On Wisconsin, Badger Insider, Badger Voice, articles submitted for publication elsewhere, the body of press releases, mailing addresses, envelopes, or letterhead
  • do use it in the mastheads of On Wisconsin, Badger Insider, and Badger Voice; the contact listing and final About WAA paragraphs in press releases; the masthead and last paragraph of newsletters; ads and other promotional materials
  • if a marketing vehicle has several pieces, use the ® on the first reference in each piece
  • do not use superscript online or with emails, but generally superscript is preferred if it’s readable
Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF)
initial caps
Wisconsin Alumni Student Board (WASB)
A student group founded in 1980 that is affiliated with WAA and functions as an ambassador to the student community.
Wisconsin Experience
The idea that, together, members of the campus community create and apply learning inside and outside the classroom to make the world a better place.
Wisconsin Field House
The official name is the Wisconsin (not UW) Field House; do not capitalize the in the Field House or the Wisconsin Field House.
Wisconsin Foundation and Alumni Association (WFAA)
the logo uses an ampersand, but use and in running text; WFAA (never the WFAA) is acceptable on second reference. WAA’s merger with the UW Foundation was effective on July 1, 2014. The blended organization is now called the Wisconsin Foundation and Alumni Association (WFAA), used primarily with campus audiences. Both WAA and UWF maintain their separate brand identities to external alumni and donor audiences.
Wisconsin Idea
This refers to former UW president Charles Van Hise’s declaration that “I shall never be content until the beneficent influence of the University reaches every home [some sources say family] in the state”; that is, he wanted the work of the university to extend to the boundaries of the state and beyond. Today this is viewed as global reach and influence. Lowercase the in the Wisconsin Idea. There is some debate as to when Van Hise made this declaration: some sources say 1904; others say 1905. Cite a date at your own risk.
Wisconsin Institutes for Discovery
The legal name of the building at 330 N. Orchard Street; it houses the private Morgridge Institute for Research (MIR), the public Wisconsin Institute for Discovery (WID), and programming staff of the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF); to avoid confusion between the building (Institutes) and one of the research entities (Institute), the building is informally called the Discovery Building.
Wisconsin State Journal
no The in the title
Wisconsin Union
This refers to the organization that manages Memorial Union, Union South, and other Union activities. Use Memorial Union or Union South to refer to the physical buildings. The Wisconsin Union (organization) prefers that people use Union only when referring to activities sponsored by the Wisconsin Union — not to specific locations — but students and alumni often use Union to refer to Memorial Union. The Wisconsin Union is a private entity that’s separate from UW–Madison, so do not use UW–Madison Union or UW Union.
Wisconsin Union Theater
also known as the Union Theater; it is not the Memorial Union Theater
Wisconsin Welcome
not Welcome Week
women
see boys, men, girls, women
words as words
see CMS 7.58
World Wide Web, the
initial caps
x
see degree years
years
see CMS 9.63
Yell Like Hell
Homecoming celebration event
YouTube
one word, uppercase Y, uppercase T
zip code
two words